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René Zandbergen: Transliteration of the Voynich MS text - additional material

Purpose of this page

At the 2022 Voynich MS Conference organised by the University of Malta, the keynote paper: "Transliteration of the Voynich MS text" refers to additional material that is available at the web site. This material is collected on the present page.

General information about Voynich MS transliteration may be found here with some additional topics provided here.

Links to original transliterations used in the paper

FSG transliteration (FG) version 1c

Currier transliteration (CD) version 0d

Takahashi transliteration (IT) version 0d

GC transliteration (GC) version 0c

Zandbergen-Landini transliteration (ZL) version 1r

Links to STA definition

The final version of STA was previously called ISTA-16 (intermediate STA version 16). The alphabet code in IVTFF file headers is therefore still IS16.

In the full format defition, characters highlighted in magenta (e.g. B7, B8) are not part of the normal STA definition. They are part of the so-called Level-0 STA and were only needed in order to cope with issues in the GC file related to alternative representations of some strings of i ending in Eva-l or Eva-m. Using these characters, the GC file can be converted to STA, and back to v101 without change. In the normal (Level-1) definition of STA these characters do not occur. In this case, conversion from v101 to STA and back leads to minor changes, but the STA alphabet is consistent. (See the paper for further clarifications on this topic).

Complete STA definition

STA families definition

Basic characters in STA

Bitrans tables for conversion of original alphabets to STA

By convention, the STA codes are placed in the first column in each file. Furthermore, each file only contains those characters that are included in the original alphabet. Note that the tables for Currier and v101 include the Level-0 characters. After conversion to STA, the user should apply the L0 to L1 conversion as a second step.


Currier to STA

Extended Eva to STA

Takahashi-style (basic) Eva to STA (added post-conference)

v101 to STA

STA Level-0 to Level-1 (irreversible)

Links to STA versions of the transliteration files

Changed to the latest versions, post-conference.

FG (1a) in STA

CD (1a) in STA level 0

CD (1a) in STA level 1

IT (1a) in STA

GC (1b) in STA level 0

GC (1b) in STA level 1

ZL (2b) in STA

Links to documents

IVTFF format (v. 1.7) definition

ivtt user manual

bitrans user manual

Bitrans tables for the analysis alphabets used in the paper

Full STA to basic Eva (approximation)

Full STA to Stava (simplification)

Basic Eva to Cuva

Basic Eva to Cuva-1

Cuva-1 to Cuva-2

Additional Figures

Original PCA plot from 1998, Cuva ZL PCA plot, Cuva GC PCA plot, Cuva
ZL PCA plot, Cuva-1 GC PCA plot, Cuva-1
ZL PCA plot, Cuva-2 GC PCA plot, Cuva-2
Original bigram plot from 1998, Cuva ZL bigram plot, Cuva GC bigram plot, Cuva
ZL bigram plot, Cuva-1 GC bigram plot, Cuva-1
ZL bigram plot, Cuva-2 GC bigram plot, Cuva-2


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Copyright René Zandbergen, 2022
Comments, questions, suggestions? Your feedback is welcome.
Original version: 09/11/2022
Update: 30/12/2022