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The Voynich MS - Bibliography and references


This page includes:

  1. A brief summary of some library resources and collections of material related to the Voynich MS:
    Beinecke Library, Grolier Club, Marshall Library.
  2. Internet resources related to the Voynich MS:
    Discussion boards, Wikis, Blogs and web sites, Herb identification, Proposed solutions.
  3. Bibliography of printed publications and references used at this site.

Libraries holding collections of material related to the Voynich MS


Following are the three main sources for archive material related to the Voynich MS. More detailed information about their holdings, and a list of additional archives, is provided on a dedicated page   (1).

The Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Yale University

The first and foremost resource is that of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Yale University:

More detailed information about the Beinecke library's holdings related to the Voynich MS may be found here.

Yale University Press has issued >>a very affordable photo facsimile with accompaying essays about the MS, in October 2016.

Yale also provides a >>summary overiew of the book, and there is a >>blog entry including a short video explaining the complicated production process.

In addition, an expensive, hand-made replica of the Voynich MS is being produced and sold by the spanish company Siloé, who are experts in the reproduction of old manuscripts. 898 numbered copies have been produced.

Before the availability of the digital scans, the library provided printout copies of an early B/W microfilm made of the MS to interested researchers (the so-called "copyflo").

The Grolier club in New York

When Hans P. Kraus decided to donate the Voynich MS to the Beinecke Library of Yale University, he also had a large amount of material that had been left behind, in turn, by Wilfrid Voynich, Ethel Voynich and Anne Nill. He gave everything that seemed to be related to the Voynich MS to the Beinecke library, as indicated already above. The remaining, extensive material (related to the antiquarian book business and to ELV's literary work) was given to the Grolier Club of bibliophiles in New York, of which he was a member.

As a result of this, the >>Grolier Club library hosts a complete set of Voynich's sales catalogues, and additional material (letters etc.) which is >>summarised here.

More detailed information about the Grolier Club's holdings related to the Voynich MS may be found here.

The George C. Marshall Library in Lexington (Va.)

The home page of the Marshall Library may be found >>here. Its main interest for the study of the Voynich MS is the collection of >>William F. Friedman papers which includes a significant amount of material related to the MS from both William and Elizebeth Friedman. This includes transcriptions of the MS by the Voynich MS study groups and correspondence. It also includes the Petersen hand transcription of the MS.

More detailed information about the Marshall Library's holdings related to the Voynich MS may be found here.

Internet resources


It is not possible to present a complete or even a representative list of internet resources about the Voynich MS. The following is an overview of sources I am aware of, that are either important, or interesting for one reason or another. I welcome information about missing or broken links (2).

The links are provided in order to present the wide variety of opinions about the Voynich MS. The inclusion of any link does not imply that I endorse its contents. To the contrary:

  1. I strongly object to any offensive statements about people and institutions that may be found in some of these sites.
  2. I will not include links to blogs or web sites that are clearly including such offensive statements.

See also the general disclaimer for this site.

Discussion boards

The list of active internet discussion fora dedicated to the Voyinch MS is changing continuously. It is almost impossible to provide a useful overview. Several of them are personal BLOG's that allow anyone to add comments. Their quality can assume a very wide range from very good to disastrous, and, apart from some special cases, I will refrain from assigning a quality label.

The two fora that are not personal blogs are the following:


There are Wikipedia entries about the Voynich MS in many different languages, confirming the interest that the MS enjoys worldwide. Following are links to the two main Wikipedia entries, in English and in German. One may reach the versions in other languages through either of these.

>>The Voynich MS entry in the general English Wikipedia.
>>The Voynich MS entry in the general German Wikipedia.

Some dedicated wiki's and wiki books have been started, but most if not all of these seem to have been abandoned.

Sites and blogs with general information

There are innumerable web sites that copy or reformulate information about the Voynich MS available elsewhere. I don't consider it possible (and it hardly seems interesting) to list all of them here. All of the web sites and blogs listed below include some original information.

Herb identification

The tentative identification of herbs in the Voynich MS has always been a topic of special interest, which is witnessed by the number of dedicated sites:

Some proposed text solutions

Earlier solutions have appeared in print and are presented in cronological order: Newbold (1928); Feely (1943); Strong (1945); Brumbaugh (1974), (1975), (1976); Child (1976), (2007); Stojko (1978); Levitov (1987).

Modern proposed solutions, available on-line, are presented in no particular order. I need to stress that there are many, many more proposed solutions, but most of these are not available at internet sites. The selection below is therefore not representative.

Bibliography and References

The following bibliography includes both general works about the Voynich MS and related material, and publications cited anywhere at this web site. The very specialised references related to the history of the MS between 1665 and 1912, and the Society of Jesus in Rome, are collected here. Items in the bibliography that are not (yet) referred to at this site are marked with a † symbol (5).

Note about sorting order: prefixes like 'De' (etc) are considered part of the name, and are sorted under 'D' (etc).


Acedo, Luis.: A Hidden Markov Model for the Linguistic Analysis of the Voynich Manuscript, Mathematical and Computational Applications (2019), 24(1). >>available online.

Aiton, Eric J.: Ioannes Marcus Marci (1595-1667), in: Annals of Science. London XXVI (1970), 153-164.

Allen, R. H.: Star Names: Their Lore & Meaning, 1899. Dover Books reprint, 1963. †

Amancio DR, Altmann EG, Rybski D, Oliveira ON Jr, Costa LdF: Probing the Statistical Properties of Unknown Texts: Application to the Voynich Manuscript. PLoS ONE 8(7), 2013. >>Available on-line. †

Anon: Prag um 1600, Kunst und Kultur am Hofe Rudolfs II, Kulturstiftung Ruhr Essen, Luca Verlag Freren 1988.

Arber, A.: Herbals, their origin and evolution. A chapter in the history of botany, 1470-1670, Cambridge University Press, 1912.

Art Institute of Chicago: Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago (1907-1951), Vol. 9, No.7 (Nov.1, 1915), pp. 97-100

Austin, G. (ed.): The Grolier Club: Iter Italicum, New York: The Grolier Club, 1963.

Backhouse, Janet: The Spanish Forger, The British Museum Quarterly, XXXIII, 1-2, 1968, pp. 65-71.

Barabe, J.: Materials Analysis of the Voynich Manuscript. Report from McCrone Associates, Inc. to the Beinecke Rare Book and MS Library, 1 April 2009. >>Available on-line.

Barlow, M.: The Voynich Manuscript --- by Voynich?, Cryptologia Vol.10, Nr. 4, October 1986, pp. 210-216.

Barthélemy, Pierre: Le codex Voynich: le manuscrit le plus myst rieux du monde Paris, J.-C. Gawsewitch diteur, 2005, ISBN 2-35013-022-3. †

Bauer, Craig: Unsolved!: The History and Mystery of the World's Greatest Ciphers from Ancient Egypt to Online Secret Societies. 1976. Princeton University Press, 2017.

Bauer, R. and H. Haupt: Das Kunstkammerinventar Kaiser Rudolfs II. 1607-1611. Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, Vol. 72, 1976.

Bennett, William Ralph: Scientific and Engineering Problem Solving with the Computer. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1976.

Bílek, Tomáš Václav: Dějiny konfiskací v Čechách po r. 1618 (history of confiscations in Bohemia after 1618) - Prague 1882.

Blevins, Pamela: , Ethel Voynich 'E.L.V.', Revolutionary, Novelist, Translator, Composer, >>available on-line

Blume, Dieter, Mechthild Haffner, Wolfgang Metzger: Sternbilder des Mittelalters, Der gemalte Himmel zwischen Wissenschaft und Phantasie.
Band I: 800-1200. De Gruyter, 2012
Band II: Sternbilder des Mittelalters und der Renaissance (1200-1500), unter Mitarbeit von Katharina Glanz. De Gruyter, August 2016.

Blunt, Wilfrid, and Sandra Raphael: The illustrated herbal, London, 1979

Böhm, Ludvík B.: Královské věnné město Mělník a okres Mělnický, Mělník, 1892.

Boeren, P.C.: Codices Vossiani Chymici décrits par P.C.Boeren. Universitaire Pers Leiden, 1975.

Bolton, Henry Carrington: The follies of science at the court of Rudolf II, 1576-1612; Milwaukee, Pharmaceutical Review Publishing Co, 1904.

Bowern, Claire and Daniel Gaskell: Enciphered after all? Word-level Text Metrics are Compatible with some Types of Encipherment. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Boxer, Alexander: Fingerprinting Gibberish: A Quantitative Comparison of the Voynich and Sloane MS 3188. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Brewer, Keagan: 'I beg your grace to suppress this chapter or else to have it written in secret letters': The Emotions of Encipherment in Late-Medieval Gynaecology. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Browne, Sir Thomas: Cited in Calder (1952)

Brumbaugh, Robert S.: Botany and the Voynich `Roger Bacon' Manuscript Once More, Speculum 49, 1974, pp.546-48.

Brumbaugh, Robert S.: The Voynich `Roger Bacon' Cipher Manuscript: Deciphered Maps of Stars, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39, 1976, pp.139-50.

Brumbaugh, Robert S. (ed.): The World's Most Mysterious Manuscript - The Voynich "Roger Bacon" Cipher Manuscript, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978.
  R. Brumbaugh: Introduction
  J. Manly: The Most Mysterious Manuscript
  R.G. Kent: The Voynich Cipher Manuscript of Roger Bacon, Sketch of its History
  R. Brumbaugh: Notes on Secrets in writing
  W. Newbold: Newbold's Decipherments
  E. Gilson and R. Carton: Reviews of the Scholarship
  J. Manly: The Voynich Manuscript attributed to Roger Bacon
  H. O'Neill: Botanical Observations on the Voynich MS
  D. Kahn: A review of the Problem
  R. Brumbaugh: Botany and the Voynich "Roger Bacon" Manuscript once more
  C. Zimanski: William F. Friedman and the Voynich Manuscript
  R. Brumbaugh: Science in Cipher

Calder, I.R.F.: John Dee Studied as an English Neo-Platonist, Warburg Institute, London, 1952. (PhD Thesis).
>> available on-line. †

Callmer, Ch.: K nigin Christina, ihre Bibliothekare und ihre Handschriften, Acta bibliothecae regiae Stockhomiensis 30, Stockholm, 1977.

Cappelli, A.: dizionario di abbreviature Latini ed Italiani, Milano, 1912. 529 pp., ill.
>> available on-line

Carter, Albert Howard: Some Impressions of the Voynich Manuscript. Letter preserved in Marshall Library, Item 1614, 10/09/1946.

Caruana, Andrew, Colin Layfield and John Abela: An Analysis of the Relationship between Words within the Voynich Manuscript. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Cave, Robert and Lee Neuwirth: Hidden Markov models for English, in: J. D. Ferguson (ed), Hidden Markov Models for Speech, IDA-CRD, Princeton, NJ, October 1980. >>available online.

Child, James R.: A linguistic approach to the Voynich text, in D'Imperio (1976).

Clarke, Mark: Colours versus colorants in art history: evaluating lost manuscript yellows. Revista de história da arte, série W No.I - 2011, pp.138-151.

Clemens, Raymond (ed), with introduction by Deborah Harkness: The Voynich Manuscript, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2016.
  D. Harkness: Introduction
  R. Clemens: Preface
  R. Zandbergen: Earliest Owners
  A. Hunt: Voynich the Buyer
  P. Zyats, E. Mysak, J. Stenger, M.-F. Lemay, A. Bezur, D. Driscoll: Physical Findings
  W. Sherman: Cryptographic Attempts
  J.M. Rampling: Alchemical Traditions
  R. Clemens: The World's Most Mysterious Manuscript

Collins, Minta: Medieval herbals: the illustrative traditions , British Library Studies in Medieval Culture, 2000.

D'Imperio, Mary E.(ed.): New Research on the Voynich Manuscript: Proceedings of a seminar, 30 November 1976. Privately printed pamphlet, Washington D.C., 1976.
  James Child: A linguistic Approach to the Voynich Text
  Prescott Currier: Some Important New Statistical Findings.
  Sydney Fairbanks: Suggestions Toward a Decipherment of the "Key".
  M. E. D'Imperio: The Solution Claim of Dr. Robert S. Brumbaugh
  Prescott Currier: Further Details of New Statistical Findings.
  Prescott Currier: The Voynich Manuscript, Some Notes and Observations.
  Stuart H. Buck: What Constitutes Proof?
It can be >> downloaded from the NSA (2.7 MB pdf)

D'Imperio, Mary E. : The Voynich Manuscript - an elegant enigma. Aegean Park Press, 1978.
It can be >> downloaded from the NSA (31.2 MB pdf)

D'Imperio, Mary E. : An Application of Cluster Analysis and Multiple Scaling to the Question of "Hands" and "Languages" in the Voynich Manuscript, National Security Agency Technical Journal. 23, 3 (Summer 1978), pp. 59-75. >>available online at NSA

D'Imperio, Mary E. : An Application of PTAH to the Voynich Manuscript, undated. >>available online at NSA

Dannenfeld, Karl K. Leonard Rauwolf, sixteenth-century physician, botanist, and traveller. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.) 1968.

De Backer, Augustain and Alois: Bibliothèque des écrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus, 7 vol., Li ge, 1853-1861.

De Ricci, Seymour, with the assistance of W. J. Wilson: Census of medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada, 1937.

Drugulin, W.E.: Allgemeiner Portrait-Katalog, Leipzig, 1860

Evans, R.J.W.: Rudolf II and his world, a study in intellectual history 1576-1612. Oxford University Press, 1973

Evans, R.J.W.: The making of the Habsburg Monarchy 1550-1700: an interpretation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979.

Fagin Davis, Lisa: Why do people keep convincing themselves they ve solved this medieval mystery?, Washington Post, 14 August 2019.

Fagin Davis, Lisa: interview by Koen Gheuens, published 3 April 2020.

Fagin Davis, Lisa: How Many Glyphs and How Many Scribes? Digital Paleography and the Voynich Manuscript, Manuscript Studies: A Journal of the Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies, University of Pennsylvania Press, Volume 5, Number 1, Spring 2020, pp. 164-180.

Fagin Davis, Lisa: Voynich Paleography, Keynote paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF).

Farrugia, Kevin, Colin Layfield and Lonneke van der Plas: Demystifying the Scribes behind the Voynich Manuscript using Computational Linguistic Techniques. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Feaster, Patrick: Rightward and Downward Grapheme Distributions in the Voynich Manuscript. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Feely, Joseph M.: Roger Bacon's Cipher: The Right Key Found, Rochester, 1943

Fell-Smith, Charlotte: John Dee (1527-1608), London, Constable & Company Ltd., 1909
>> available on-line. †

Fiddyment, Sarah, Bruce Holsinger, Chiara Ruzzi and Alexander Devine: Animal origin of 13th-century uterine vellum revealed using noninvasive peptide fingerprinting. Proceedings of National Academy of Science 112: 49 (2015), 15066-71.

Findlen, Paula (ed.): Athanasius Kircher: The Last Man who Knew Everything, Routledge, 2004.

Fletcher, John E.: A brief survey of the unpublished correspondence of Athanasius Kircher S J. (1602-80), in: Manuscripta, XIII, St. Louis, 1969, pp. 150-60.

Fletcher, John E.: Johann Marcus Marci writes to Athanasius Kircher. Janus, Leyden, LIX (1972), pp. 97-118

Fletcher, John E. (ed.): Athanasius Kircher und seine Beziehungen zum gelehrten Europa seiner Zeit Wolfenbütteler Arbeiten zur Barockforschung, Band 17, 1988.

Friedman, Elizebeth: The Most Mysterious Manuscript still Mysterious Washington Post, August 5, Section E, pp. 1,5, 1962.

Gabrovsky, Alexander N.: Galenic Humoral Theory and Amenorrhea: Cushingoid Phenotype in a fifteenth-century Illustrated Cipher Manuscript. Notes in the History of Art. Spring 2018 (0737-4453/2018/3703-0002), pp. 136-149. †

Garber, M.: Optics and alchemy in the philosophical writings of Marcus Marci in post-Rudolphine Prague 1612-1670, dissertation submitted for the degree Doctor of Philosophy, San Diego, 2002.

Gaskell, Daniel and Claire Bowern: Gibberish after all? Voynichese is Statistically Similar to Human-Produced Samples of Meaningless Text. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Gessman, Gustav W.: Die Geheimsymbole der Alchymie, Arzneikunde und Astrologie des Mittelalters, Berlin, Verlag von Karl Siegismund, 1922.

Gheuens, Koen and Cary Rapaport: Above and Beyond Voynich Canopies: Tents as a Recurring Motif in Beinecke MS 408. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Gilly, Carlos: "Theophrastia Sancta", Der Paracelsismus als Religion im Streit mit den offiziellen Kirchen. In: Joachim Telle (ed.): Analecta Paracelsica, Studien zum Nachleben Theophrast von Hohenheims im deutschen Kulturgebiet der frühen Neuzeit. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart, 1994, pp. 425-488.

Godwin, Joscelyn: Athanasius Kircher: A Renaissance Man and the Quest for Lost Knowledge. London, Thames and Hudson, 1979

Gröbl, Lydia and Herbert Haupt (eds): Kaiser Rudolf II. Kunst, Kultur und Wissenschaft im Spiegel der Hoffinanz. Teil I: Die Jahre 1576 bis 1595, in: Jahrbuch des Kunsthistorischen Museums Wien 8/9 (2006/2007), 205-353.

Grossman, L.: When words fail. The struggle to decipher the world's most difficult book, Lingua Franca, April 1999. >>available online. †

Guy, Jacques: Vowel Identification: an Old (but Good) Algorithm, Cryptologia, Vol.XV, Nr.3, July 1991, pp.258-262. Available >>online here.

Guzy, Stefan: Book transactions of Emperor Rudolf II 1576-1612. New findings on the earliest ownership of the Voynich manuscript. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF).

Haakman, A.: De onderaardse wereld van Athanasius Kircher, Meulenhoff, 1991.

Hauer, Bradley and Grzegorz Kondrak: Decoding Anagrammed Texts Written in an Unknown Language and Script, Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, vol. 4, pp. 75 86, 2016.

Haupt, Herbert (ed): Kaiser Rudolf II. Kunst, Kultur und Wissenschaft im Spiegel der Hoffinanz. Teil II: Die Jahre 1596 bis 1612, in: Jahrbuch des Kunsthistorischen Museums Wien 10 (2008), 229-399.

Hermes, Jürgen: Textprozessierung - Design und Applikation, Dissertation, Universität zu Köln, 2012. †

Hermes, Jürgen: Polygraphia III: The Cipher that Pretends to be an Artificial Language. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Horčický de Tepenec, Jakub: Konfessy katholická. Totiž : Wyznánj prawé Wjry [etc], 1609. Reprinted in 1782.

Hübner, Wolfgang: Die Eigenschaften der Tierkreiszeichen in der Antike: ihre Darstellung und Verwendung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Manilius, 1975.

Hunt, Arnold: Foreign Dealers in the English Trade in: Giles Mandelbrote, ed. Out of Print & Into Profit: A History of the Rare and Second hand Book Trade in Britain in the Twentieth Century. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press; London: The British Library, 2006, pp. 245-267.

Hunt, Arnold: Voynich, The Buyer in: Clemens (2016), pp. 11-21.

Janick, Jules and Arthur O. Tucker: Were Juan Gerson the illustrator and Gaspar de Torres the author of the Voynich Codex? Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, vol. 45(2), 2017, pp. 343-352.

Janick, Jules and Arthur O. Tucker: Unraveling the Voynich Codex. Fascinating Life Sciences, Springer, Cham Switzerland, 2018.

Jantsch, Michael: Domus pietatis et literarum lapide fundamentali, 1680.

Jireček, Josef: Rukověť k dějinám literatury české do konce XVIII. věku (Manual of the history of Czech literature until the end of the 18th C - Prague 1875), pp.235-236.

Johnson, Reed: The unread: the mystery of the Voynich Manuscript. The New Yorker, July 9, 2013. >>Available online.

Kahn, David: The Codebreakers. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Katz, Farley: From Voynich to the Beinecke, the Trail of Ownership. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF).

Kennedy, Gerry and Rob Churchill: The Voynich manuscript; the mysterious code that has defied interpretation for centuries, 2004, 2006.

Kennedy, Gerry: The Booles & The Hintons, two dynasties that helped shape the modern world, Atrium, 2016.

King, David: The Ciphers of the Monks: A Forgotten Number-notation of the Middle Ages, Stuttgart, 2001.

Kraus, Hans P.: A rare book saga -- The autobiography of H. P. Kraus. New York: Putnam's, 1978.

Krischer, Jeffrey P.: The Voynich Manuscript, Paper presented at the seminar in mathematical linguistics, Harvard, 1969.

Kurz, Otto: Fakes, A Handbook for Collectors and Students, Yale University Press, 1948.

Landini, Gabriel and René Zandbergen: A Well-kept Secret of Mediaeval Science: the Voynich manuscript, in: Aseculapius, the journal of the University of Birmigham Medical and Dental Graduates Society, 1998. †

Landini, Gabriel: Evidence of linguistic structure in the Voynich MS using spectral analysis, in Cryptologia Vol. 25 Issue 4, 2001, pp. 275-295.

Langenmantel, Hieronymus: Fasciculus epistolarum Adm. R. P. Athanasii Kircheri Soc. Jesu (etc), Augustae Vindelicorum, Ao. 1684, 8vo, pp.100.

Layfield, Colin, Lonneke van der Plas, Michael Rosner and John Abela: Word Probability Findings in the Voynich Manuscript, University of Malta, May 2020.

Layfield, Colin and John Abela: International Conference on the Voynich Manuscript 2020, 30 Nov - 1 Dec 2022, >>proceedings available online. Contributions in order of the programme: Clemens;   Zandbergen;   Boxer;   Gheuens and Rapaport;   Brewer;   Gaskell and Bowern;   Farrugia, Layfield and van der Plas;   Bowern and Gaskell;   Hermes;   Caruana, Layfield and Abela;   Lindemann;   Zattera;   Painter and Bowern;   Feaster;   Stafford;   Katz;   Schmeh and Dunin;   Guzy;   Fagin Davis.
See also the >> book of abstracts (PDF)

Ledrerova, Dagmar: Bibliographie de Joannes Marcus Marci. In: Novy and Folta (1967), pp. 39-50.

Levitov, Leo: Solution of the Voynich Manuscript: A Liturgical Manual for the Endura Rite of the Cathari Heresy, the Cult of Isis. Laguna Hills, California: Aegean Park Press, 1987.

Lindemann, Luke and Claire Bowern: Character Entropy in Modern and Historical Texts: Comparison Metrics for an Undeciphered Manuscript. 27 October 2020.

Lindemann, Luke: Crux of the MATTR: Voynichese Morphological Complexity. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Liva, Václav: Seznamy pražských novomésťanů za léta 1618 1653. Časopis Rodopisné společnosti československé v Praze VII-VIII, 1935-1936.

Manly, John Matthews: The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World: Did Roger Bacon Write It and Has the Key Been Found? in Harper's Monthly Magazine 143 (1921), pp. 186-97.

Manly, John Matthews: Roger Bacon and the Voynich MS. Speculum 6, July 1931, pp. 345-391.

Marci, Johannes Marcus: Pan en Panton, seu Philosophia Vetus Restituta. Pragae, Typis Academicis, 1662.

Marek, Jiri: Un physicien Tchèque du XVII siècle: J.M. Marci de Kronland (1595-1667), in: Revue d'histoire des sciences, Paris 1968 XXI 109-130.

Meister, Aloys: Die Anfänge der modernen diplomatischen Geheimschrift. Paderborn, 1902. †

Meister, Aloys: Die Geheimschrift im Dienste der päpstlichen Kurie von ihren Anfängen bis zum Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts, Paderborn, 1906. †

Montemurro, Marcelo and Damian Zanette: Keywords and Co-Occurrence Patterns in the Voynich Manuscript: An Information-Theoretic Analysis, PLoS ONE 8(6): e66344. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066344 (2013)

Morávek, Jan: Nově objevený inventář Rudolfinských sbírek na hradě Pražskěm. Praha, 1937.

Neugebauer, Otto: A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. 3 vols. Berlin, 1975.

Newbold, William Romaine: The Cipher of Roger Bacon. Edited with foreword and notes by Roland Grubb Kent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1928.

Nový, Luboš and Jaroslav Folta (eds.): Acta historiae rerum naturalium necnon technicarum. Special issue 3, Prague, 1967.
  J. Smolka: Joannes Marcus Marci, his life, time and works.
  Z. Servit: Joannes Marcus Marci a Kronland (Jan Marek, 1595-1667). His contributions in the field of medicine [...]..
  D. Ledrerova: Bibliographie de Joannes Marcus Marci.

O'Neill, Hugh: Botanical Observations on the Voynich Manuscript. Speculum 19 (1944) p. 126

Orioli, Giuseppe: Adventures of a bookseller, McBride & Co, 1938.

Ottův slovník naučný: 35 Vols., Prague, 1900.

Painter, Katie and Claire Bowern: Examining the history of Voynich Glyphs using Phylogenetic Methods. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Parpagliolo, Luigi: Codice delle antichità e degli oggetti di arte., Raccolta di leggi, decreti, regolamenti, circolari relativi alla conservazione dei monumenti e degli oggetti di antichità e di arte con richiami alla giurisprudenza e ai precedenti storici e legislativi ..., Roma, E. Loescher & Co. (W. Regenberg), 1913.

Paulus, Julian: Alchemie und Paracelsismus um 1600. Siebzig Portrats. In: Joachim Telle (ed.): Analecta Paracelsica, Studien zum Nachleben Theophrast von Hohenheims im deutschen Kulturgebiet der frühen Neuzeit. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart, 1994, pp. ???-???.

Pelling, Nicholas: The curse of the Voynich; the secret history of the world's most mysterious manuscript, Compelling Press, Surbiton, 2006.

Pelzel, Franz Martin: Abbildungen Böhmischer und Mährischer Gelehrten und Künstler nebst kurzen Nachrichten von ihrem Leben und Wirken, Prague, 1773-1782

Pick, Friedel: Joh. Jessenius de Magna Jessen Arzt und Rektor in Wittenberg und Prag hingerichtet am 21 Juni 1621, ein Lebensbild aus der Zeit des dreissigjährigen Krieges. Leipzig, 1926

Podlaha, Antonín: Tři čeští laikové literární obránci víry katolické ve století XVI. a XVII. (Blažej Nožička z Votina, Jakub Horčický z Tepence, Jan Benedikt Smolík.), Sborník Historického kroužku, sešit 5 (1896), pp. 3-24 (Horčický pp. 10-20).

Poundstone, William: Labyrinths of Reason, Doubleday, New York, 1988. †

Prinke, Rafał and René Zandbergen: Najdziwniejszy dokument średniowieczny. Komputerowe próby rozszyfrowania Rukopisu Wojnicza [in:] Rafał T. Prinke [ed.], Megabajty dziejów. Informatyka w badaniach, popularyzacji i dydaktyce historii, Poznan 2007, p. 45-62. †

Prinke, Rafał: History of the Manuscript from Rudolf to Voynich, presentation at the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Voynich MS, Villa Mondragone, Monteporzio Catone, 11 May 2012.

Prinke, Rafał: Nolite de me inquirere [Do not seek to ask about me]: Michael Sendivogius. In: Purš and Karpenko (2016), pp. 317-333.

Prinke, Rafał and Mike Zuber: Alchemical Patronage and the Making of an Adept: Letters of Michael Sendivogius to Emperor Rudolf II and His Chamberlain Hans Popp. Ambix. 2018 Nov; 65(4) pp. 324-355. doi: 10.1080/00026980.2018.1512776.

Prinke, Rafał and Mike Zuber: "Learn to Restrain your Mouth": Alchemical Rumours and their Historiographical Afterlives. Early Science and Medicine 25, 2020, pp. 413-452.

Purš, Ivo and Vladimir Karpenko (eds.): Alchemy and Rudolf II, Exploring the Secrets of Nature in Central Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, Artefactum, Prague, 2016.
Originally published as:
Purš I. and V.Karpenko: Alchymie a Rudolf II. Artefactum, Praha, 2011. (In Czech).

Ragazzini, Stefania: Un erbario del XV secolo: il Ms. 106 della Biblioteca di Botanica dell'Universita di Firenze, Firenze, 1983. †

Rampling, Jennifer M.: Alchemical Traditions in: Clemens (2016), pp. 45-51.

Reddy, Sravana, and Kevin Knight: What we know about the Voynich Manuscript, in Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities, 2011.

Reeds, Jim: William F. Friedman's Transcription of the Voynich Manuscript, Cryptologia XIX, 1995.
A PDF draft is >>available here.

Reeds, Jim: John Dee and the Magic Tables in the Book of Soyga, 1996.
For more information and an electronic copy of his paper, see the >> wikipedia article. The MS has been >>edited and published on-line by Jane Kupin.

Reeds, Jim: private communication, June 1998.

Reilly, Connor: Athanasius Kircher: a master of a Hundred Arts, 1620 - 1680, Studia Kircheriana, Wiebaden, Edizioni del Mondo, 1974.

Richterová, A.: Alchemical Manuscripts in the collections of Rudolf II. In: Purš and Karpenko (2016), pp. 249-291.
Originally published in Czech.

Riegrův slovník naučný, Prague, 1886.

Roberts, R.J. and A.G. Watson (eds.): John Dee's library catalogue. The bibliographical Society, London, 1990.

Rugg, Gordon: An Elegant Hoax? A possible solution to the Voynich manuscript, Cryptologia, 28:1, pp. 31-46 (2004) †

Rugg, Gordon and Gavin Taylor: Hoaxing statistical features of the Voynich Manuscript, Cryptologia, 41:3, pp. 247-268, (2017) †

Ryba, Bohumil: Originál posledního pořízení Jana Marka Marci v diplomatáří strahovském. Str. Kn. IV (1969) pp. 95-108

Schaefer, Bradley E.: The Most Mysterious Astronomical Manuscript: Baffled researchers are looking for astronomical clues to help decipher a medieval manuscript, Sky & Telescope 100, 5 (November, 2000). †

Schinner, Andreas: The Voynich Manuscript. Evidence of the Hoax Hypothesis, in: Cryptologia. Philadelphia Vol. 31.2007 (April), pp. 95 ff.

Schmeh, Klaus: Nicht zu knacken, Von ungelösten Enigma-Codes zu den Briefen des Zodiac-Killers. Karl Hanser Verlag, München, 2012.

Schmeh, Klaus and Elonka Dunin: The Voynich Manuscript Compared with Other Encrypted Books. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Schmidl S.J., Johannes: Historiae Societatis Jesu Provinciae Bohemiae, pars III, ab anno Christi MDCXVI ad annum MDCXXXII, Pragae, 1754

Schneider, Ivo: Marci von Kronland (Adel 1654), Johann Marcus, in: Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1990, pp.119-120.

Schuppener, Georg: Theodor Moretus (1602-1667) - ein Prager Jesuiten-Mathematiker. In: Bohemia Jesuitica 1556 - 2006, ed. Petronilla Cemus (W rzburg: Echter, 2010), pp.645-659

Segre Rutz, Vera: Il giardino magico degli alchimisti: un erbario illustrato trecentesco della Biblioteca universitaria di Pavia e la sua tradizione. Introduzione, edizione critica e commento, Milano, 2000

Servít, Zdeněk: Joannes Marcus Marci a Kronland (Jan Marek, 1595-1667). His contributions in the field of medicine and in the development of concepts relating to brain mechanisms. In: Novy and Folta (1967), pp. 27-37.

Servít, Zdeněk: Jan Marek Marci z Kronlandu, zapomenutý zakladatel novověké fysiologie a medicíny, Bratislava, Veda, 1989.

Shailor, Barbara: Catalogue of medieval and renaissance manuscripts in the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, 1984.

Sherman, William: Cryptographic Attempts in: Clemens (2016), pp. 39-43.

Skála ze Zhoře, Pavel: Historie Česká - od defenestrace k Bílé hoře. Prague, 1984.

Skinner, Stephen, with an introduction by R. Prinke and R.Zandbergen: The Voynich Manuscript: The Complete Edition of the World's Most Mysterious and Esoteric Codex, Watkins, London, 2017.

Smith, Emma May and Marco Ponzi: Glyph combinations across word breaks in the Voynich manuscript, Cryptologia (2019), DOI: 10.1080/01611194.2019.1596998. †

Smolka, Josef: Joannes Marcus Marci, his life, time and works. In: Novy and Folta (1967), pp. 5-25.

Smolka, Josef: Nové pohledy na J. Marka Marci a jeho dobu? In: Dějiny věd a techniky, č 1 (1970).

Smolka, Josef and René Zandbergen: Athanasius Kircher und seine ersten Prager Korrespondenten. In: Bohemia Jesuitica 1556-2006, ed. Petronilla Cemus (W rzburg: Echter, 2010), pp. 677-705

Smolka, Josef: Italská cesta J. M. Marci a Fr. K. Šternberka (1640), In: Dějiny věd a techniky, XLVII (2014), 4.

Smolka, Josef and Ivo Purš: Jakub Horcicky (Sinapius) und seine Nobilitation, Studia Rudolphina 14 (2014), Bulletin of the Research Center for Visual Arts and Culture in the Age of Rudolf II, pp. 101-113.

Smolka, Josef: Johannes Marcus Marci and his circle. In: Purš and Karpenko (2016), pp. 741-769.
Originally published in Czech.

Sowerby, E. Millicent: Rare People and Rare Books. London, Constable, 1967.

Stafford, Tavi: Seven Habits of Highly Eccentric Paragraphs. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Stamp, Mark: A Revealing Introduction to Hidden Markov Models. Department of Computer Science, San Jose State University, October 17, 2018. >>available online

Sterneck, Rachel, Annie Polish and Claire Bowern: Topic modeling in the Voynich Manuscript. arXiv:2107.02858v1 [cs.CL] 6 July 2021. >> available online

Stojko, John: Letters to God's Eye: The Voynich Manuscript for the first time deciphered and translated into English. New York: Vantage Press, 1978.

Stolzenberg, Daniel: Egyptian Oedipus: Athanasius Kircher and the Secrets of Antiquity. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Strong, Leonell C.: Anthony Askham, the author of the Voynich manuscript. Science, 101(2633), 1945, pp.608-609.

Svobodný, Petr (ed): Joannes Marcus Marci, a 17th century Bohemian polymath, Prague, Charles University Press, 1998.

Teige, Josef: Úmluva příspěvek k diplomatice zápisů Desk zemských Království českého. V Praze, F. Backovsky 1893.

Tiltman, John H.: The Voynich Manuscript, The Most Mysterious Manuscript in the World. NSA Technical Journal 12 (July 1967), pp.41-85.

Timm, Torsten and Andreas Schinner: A possible generating algorithm of the Voynich manuscript, Cryptologia (2019), DOI: 10.1080/01611194.2019.1596999, >>available on-line.

Toresella, Sergio: Gli erbari degli alchmisti, in: L. Saginati, Arte farmaceutica e piante medicinali; erbari, vasi, strumenti e testi dalle raccolte liguri, 1995

Touwaide, Alain: Il Manoscritto piu Misterioso - l'Erbario Voynich, in: Villa Mondragone "Seconda Roma", a cura di Marina Formica, Palomba Editori, 2015, pp. 141-158. A >>summary is available here.

Tranchedino, Francesco: Diplomatische Geheimschriften - Codex Vindobonensis 2398; The Fine Art Facsimile Edition: Codices Selecti vol. XXII. Graz 1970, ed. Walter Höflechner

Tucker, Arthur and R. Talbert: A preliminary analysis of the botany, zoology and mineralogy of the Voynich Manuscript, HerbalGram 100, 2013, pp.70-75. >>Available on-line.

Tucker, Arthur O. and Jules Janick: Identification of phytomorphs in the Voynich Codex. Horticultural Reviews vol. 44, 2016, pp. 1-64.

Tucker, Arthur O. and Jules Janick: Flora of the Voynich Codex, and exploration of Aztec Plants. Springer Nature Switzerland AG, Cham, Switzerland, 2019.

Vávra, Joseph: Jacobus Horcicky de Tepenec, in Vyrocni zprava Ceske realky Prazske, 1895

von Auersperg, Joseph Carl: Geschichte des königlichen böhmischen Appellationsgerichtes. Prague 1805.

von Schleinitz, Prof. Otto: Die Bibliophilen. W.M.Voynich., in: Zeitschrift f r B cherfreunde, Herausgegeben von Fedor von Zobelitz. 10. Jahrgang 1906/1907, Heft 12: M rz 1907.

von Schwarzenfeld, Gertrude: Magica aus der Zeit Rudolfs II, in: Antaios 5, No. 4 (1963), pp. 478-481.

Voynich, Wilfrid M. de, and Fielding H. Garrison: Figurations of skeletal and visceral anatomy in the books of hours. Annals of medical hist., I 225-30, 4 ill. New York, 1917.

Voynich, Wilfrid M.: A Preliminary Sketch of the History of the Roger Bacon Cipher Manuscript. In: Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, Vol. 43, 1921, pp.415-430 (read April 20, 1921). >>Available on-line.

Vydání Pripravil, K. and Miroslav Truc: Album Academiae Pragensis Societatis Iesu 1573-1617 (1565-1624), Universita Karlova, Praha, 1968.

Wagner, Eva Maria: Untersuchungen zu Lesbarkeit und Aussagekraft von Pflanzendarstellungen in mittelalterlichen Kr uterbuchhandschriften am Beispiel des Codex latinus monacensis 28531, Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorw rde der Fakult t f r Biologie der Albert-Ludwigs-Universit t zu Freiburg im Breisgau, 2006. †

Whiteman, Bruce: Only Copy Known, Random Reflections on Rarity, in: Book Talk: Essays on Books, Booksellers, Collection and Special Collections, Edited by Robert H. Jackson and Carol Z. Rothkopf, Oak Noll Press, New Castle, Delaware, 2006, pp. 11-28.

Wilkins, Ernest H.: The University of Chicago Manuscript of the Genealogia Deorum gentilium of Boccaccio, University of Chicago Press, 1927. >>relevant section on-line here

Winter, Zikmund: O životě na vysokých školach pražských knihy dvoje. Kulturní obraz XV a XVI století. Prague 1899.

Wraný, Adalbert: Geschichte der Chemie und der auf Chemischer Grundlage beruhenden Betriebe in Böhmen, bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Prag, 1902.

Zandbergen, René and Rafał Prinke: The Voynich MS in Prague, from Rudolf II to Johannes Marcus Marci. In: Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Mathematica et Physica, Vol. 46, Supplementum, 2005, pp. 141-152. †

Zandbergen, René: Pre-Rudolfine History of the MS, presentation at the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Voynich MS, Villa Mondragone, Monteporzio Catone, 11 May 2012.

Zandbergen, René and Rafał Prinke: The Voynich MS in Rudolfine Prague. In: Purš and Karpenko (2016), pp. 297-314.
Originally published in Czech in 2011.

Zandbergen, René: Earliest Owners in: Clemens (2016), pp. 3-9.

Zandbergen, René: The journey to America of a set of manuscripts from the Collegium Romanum. APUG blog entry, 22 October 2016, >>available on-line. †

Zandbergen, René: The Cardan grille approach to the Voynich MS taken to the next level. arXiv:2104.12548v1 [cs.CY], 11 April 2021, >>available on-line. †

Zandbergen, René: Transliteration of the Voynich MS text. Keynote paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF).

Zattera, Massimiliano: A new Transliteration Alphabet brings new Evidence of Word Structure and Multiple "languages" in the Voynich Manuscript. Paper presented at the 2022 Voynich MS Conference, Malta, 2022. >>available on-line (PDF). †

Zimanski, Curt A.: William F. Friedman and the Voynich Manusript. Philological Quarterly, Vol. XLIX, no.4, October 1970.

Zimmermann, Heinrich: Das Inventar der Prager Schatz- und Kunstkammer vom 6. Dezember 1621, in: Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerh chsten Kaiserhauses, Band XXV, 1905, pp.XIII ff.

Zimmern, Helen: The Romance of a Literary Treasure-House. Pall Mall Magazine, July to December, 1908.

Zyats, Paula, Gregory W. Hodgins and Joseph G. Barabe: The Mysterious Voynich Manuscript. Collaboration Yields New Insights. American Institutes for Conservation's 40th Annual Meeting, May 8 11, 2012, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Zyats, P., E. Mysak, J. Stenger, M.-F. Lemay, A. Bezur and D. Driscoll: Physical Findings in: Clemens (2016), pp. 23-37.


Presently still under development.
For any broken links, or important missing information, please feel free to contact me through the contact information provided here.
Access to papers on may require some light (and free of charge) registration process, before downloading is possible.
>> paper by dr. Artemij Keidan, Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Oriental Institute, Sapienza University of Rome. See note 3 above about access to Aademia papers.
The internal references still need a final review.


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